Regarding the "chosen people": don't Muslims believe that Islam is the true path and that those who recognize Muhammad and follow the Five Pillars are above idolaters and non-Muslims? Jews believe their religion is the chosen one. Muslims and Christians think the same about their own.
You also have no proof that Moses was not a Hebrew nationalist (for lack of a better term). Perhaps he was.
Your description is not necessarily correct. Islam does not have an exclusive idea about religion. While recognizing that the revelation sent to Muhammad is the completion of the message sent by God to humanity we don't have a position of animosity towards other religions. We do not believe that it is an all or none world where either you become a Muslim or go to hell. The Qur'an is very clear about that. It says ANY who believe in God and do good works will receive a reward from God. It also adds "on them shall be no fear nor shall they grieve." The history of tolerance and cooperation of Muslims with other religions is there on the pages of history to read.
You are wrong about the Jews. It is not their religion that they think is the chosen one. It is their identity as an ethnic group who possess the Godly soul that makes them chosen. That ethnic identity is not something that one can be converted to, it is only passed on from generation to generation through a Jewish mother. Herein lies a big difference between Judaism and other religions. Besides being cursed by Jesus to bear fruit no more the Jews do not prosletyze. That is because they believe they are complete. But in other religions like Islam and Christianity you can become a full member with all the card carrying privileges by converting. But in Judaism you have to be born into it through your mother to have the card carrying privileges.
Many Christians believe that the Jews are God's chosen people not them. Go talk to Bush's Amen corner and you will see. They are a very odd set of people who believe that people belonging to another religion are more chosen by God than them. What a mental trick bag isn't it? As Jesus said, "by their works you will know them." Any human being can become chosen by God by believing in Him and practicing good deeds. That is a big difference than being born into it through your mother as many Jews believe.
One of the names of the Qur'an is that is a Criterion or a Correction. It was revealed to correct the lies told about God's messages and His Prophets by corrupters of religion. You say that Moses may have been a nationalist. My Qur'an says that he was not. My Qur'an says that no Prophet of God was a narrow minded individual that committed wrongs and only cared for the narrow goals of ignorant people. This is where the Qur'an corrects the depiction of God's Prophets. The Qur'an lets us know that all of God's Prophets dealt with universal truths and universal realities in an evolutionary manner that was finally culminated in the completion of the message to humanity in Muhammad (peace be upon him). Even Jesus said, "Thy Kingdom come, Thy will be done..." all pointing to a future time. But in the message of the Qur'an God says, "My Kingdom is here and My Will is being established!" That's why in Islam we don't have a separation of Church and State. The message of the Qur'an was not just sent to guide spirits. It was sent to guide human beings in ALL aspects of life!!!