"O mankind! We created you from a single soul, male and female, and made you into nations and tribes, so that you may come to know one another. Truly, the most honoured of you in God’s sight is the greatest of you in piety. God is All-Knowing, All- aware [49:13]
“And those who harm believing men and women undeservedly, bear on themselves the crime of slander and plain sin.” (Al-Ahzab: 58)
“A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim, he neither oppresses him, nor does
he fail him; he neither lies to him, nor does he hold him in contempt. The
whole of a Muslim for another Muslim is inviolable: his blood, his
property, his honor.” – Prophet Mohammed (saaw)
Democracy is imposed with fire, freedom with warplanes and human rights by human killing," Walid Moualim
Links between ISIL, al-Muhajiroun, UK gov't: Britain's papers
Sooner or later, a society of sheep will create a government of wolves”
Bertrand de Jouvenel
Western countries are on red alert after reports that over a thousand ‘jihadists’ many from Britain and US have flown out to join the terrorist group ‘Islamic State of Iraq and Levant’ (ISIL) and will be returning home to inflict terrorist attacks.
Meanwhile a report in Britain’s Daily Mail, which has a history of equating Muslims with terrorism, has unwittingly highlighted the link between British government’s contradictory policies and its connection with the ISIL terrorists.
In a daily mail report by David Jones titled ‘How Cardiff became a city where families are torn between East and West - and why two clever sons grew up to be terrorists,’ Jones investigates the boy featured in the ISIL video, sitting with guns begging other Muslims to join the terrorist group.
In the report the father of two boys who are of British Yemeni descent expressed his disbelief as to how his 20-year-old son Nasser Muthana, who was going to become a doctor is featured in an ISIL video pleading with Muslims to travel to Iraq and Syria and join them.
Ahmed Muthana believes his son was brainwashed pointing to fanatics ‘men with long beards’. He said that once the boys are ensnared they are then groomed with stories of injustice against Sunni Muslims by Shias, the West and Assad’s regime.
He also told the reporter: “Each Friday, they materialise uninvited outside one of Cardiff’s 12 mosques, distributing leaflets to young Muslim boys. Usually they are invitations to a lecture or talk, with the enticement of free food.”
According to the report a friend of Muthana’s brothers said the recruiters also directed Muslim youths to internet sites depicting graphically brutal acts against the Sunnis, and asked: ‘Are you going to stand by and let them do this to our people?’
Another 18 year old featured on ISIL video was Reeyad Khan whose friend also revealed ‘he and the brothers were targeted by a mysterious group of Midlands-based ISIL recruiters, who frequently travel to Cardiff and show laptop videos of Muslims being slaughtered in battle’.
These men are said by local Muslim youths to be followers of al-Muhajiroun, the so-called jihadists who keep resurfacing using different names.
This is the same al-Muhajiroun that influenced the two Muslim converts who later went out to hack a British soldier to death in a busy London street and then as a special favour to Islam stood around covered in blood begging to be filmed so the world can see how Islam is bloodthirsty and barbaric.
The same al-Muhajiroun whose leader Anjum Choudhry who has no religious credentials and is often brought out on queue by the security services to frighten the British public about how Sharia law should be forced on them.
The same Anjum Choudhary who early last year went to Edgware road with thugs with shaved heads, long beards, dressed up in Jilbabs, trainers and sunglasses with placards demanding British Muslims should fight Shia and go to Syria and destroy President Assad’s regime while Choudhry’s goons violently attacked Shia men passing by.
Ahmed Munthana further reveals that the al-Manar mosque where some of these bearded men would hand out leaflets is where in 2012 ‘a Saudi cleric was invited ‘ Mohammed al-Arifi, the ‘rock star’ Saudi hate-preacher to deliver a lecture there.’
This is the same Saudi cleric Muhammad al Arifi who had stated ‘Israel is not our enemy but the Shias are’ and that the ‘Arab youth should join the Free Syrian Army and as a consolation prize they can have a few hours marriage with Syrian women in order to satisfy their sexual desires which will boost their testosterones to kill more Syrians’.
The father was also baffled as to how his son managed to get enough money to buy his airfare, according to the report “presumably it was paid for by … [the ISIL]which is said to be the world’s richest terror group with £1.5 billion in its coffers.”
Mr Kalantar whose son Ali also has left to join ISIL expressed his anger at the authorities. “He accuses the police of failing to properly investigate the religious leader; the security services of failing to intercept his son’s party before they reached Syria; and the Government of turning a blind eye to the … [ISIL] recruitment drive.”
Meanwhile Prime Minister David Cameron put Britain on red alert about the threat of ISIL fighters returning home after reports emerged that over 500 hundred British Muslims had gone to Syria, many joining the ISIL.
It didn’t help when a letter to The Times by Brigadier General Abdulellah al-Basheer of the [so-called] Free Syrian Army stated that members of the al-Qaeda-linked ISIL, many from UK, are involved in brutal acts against the Syrian people. He also noted that the ISIL militants are responsible for “beheadings, crucifixions, beatings, murders and outdated methods of treating women” in the Arab country.
Wait a minute isn’t this what happens in Saudi Arabia “beatings, murders and outdated methods of treating women”?
Who are the ISIL is explained aptly by Pepe Escobar in his article ‘Burn, Men in Black, burn.’He writes: “Let’s cut to the chase. As in chasing that Zara outdoor summer collection, complete with state of the art assault rifles, brand new white Nike sneakers and brand new, unlimited mileage white Toyotas crossing the Syrian-Iraqi desert; the Badass Jihadis in Black.”
As the world looks on horrified at hordes of ‘jihadists’ emerging from American land cruisers, jeeps, partly hooded faces, wearing sunglasses, and carrying weaponry which can be traced back to Saudi Arabia and the [Persian] Gulf countries.
Nickolay Mladenov, the special representative of UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon for Iraq, said. “In terms of financing and the flow of vehicles and weapons that the ISIL possesses, clearly the organization is quite well-funded,”
Jordanian officials also revealed to the American news website WorldNet Daily that US military instructors trained Takfiri militants of the ISIL at a secret base in Jordan in 2012.
It is common knowledge that the ISIL is funded and supported by the Saudi regime, Israel and the US. The news that President Obama is asking Congress for a further $500 million for the Syrian rebels has astonished analysts. Dr Kevin Barrett in an article ‘Obama throws gasoline on Mideast Fire’ writes:
“What explains this bizarre, two-faced US policy? In a word: Destabilization…..The destabilization doctrine is set by the Zionist lobby, which dominates US Mideast policy. Israel’s desire, expressed decades ago by Oded Yinon, is to have the countries of the region split up into Balkanized sub-units. So the Zionist-driven US creates and runs extremist groups like al-Qaeda and ISIL. These groups attack and destabilize Middle Eastern countries....”
In the meantime while the advocates of the New World Order stand by and watch their plan unfold, American journalist Seymour Hirsch had also expressed in a New Yorker article in 2007 something on the same lines when he stated “that the growth of terrorist groups was in reality a fruition of a complex premeditated plan, years in the making.”
The ‘fruition of a complex premeditated plan, years in the making” can be clearly visualised if we look closely at Britain’s blatant contradictory policies regarding the Syrian conflict and British Muslims.
However first we need to ask the question how were British Muslim youth mobilised to go and fight against other Muslims?
Assuming these are the marginalised youth grown up under the war on terror brought up on an unsavoury diet of Islamophobic reports and seen footages of atrocities carried out against Muslims, in Afghanistan, Iraq, Abu Garaib and Guantanamo.
If this is the case the logical question asked is why have these Muslims gone to fight other Muslims instead of those perpetuating these crimes – the US and Israel.
Also isn’t it a fact that these Muslims have grown up watching for years the struggle of the Palestinians, kept in an open prison, killed, murdered, tortured; where children as young as 6 have been tortured for throwing stones, killed by snipers randomly, and these crimes are just the tip of the iceberg. Already there is news that Israel is preparing to bomb Gaza again.
Muslims may also be aware even though the media will hush this piece of information that Israel is dismantling Masjid Aqsa the third holiest place for Islam. The al-Aqsa Foundation for Islamic Endowment (Waqf) and Heritage has warned that Israel is targeting the mosque by weakening its foundations through constant digging and excavations in the hope that the mosque will collapse on its own. Jewish religious texts believe that in order for Israel to become a world power it has to first demolish al-Aqsa, “purify” the area and build a Jewish temple.
Why haven’t the Muslim youth defended Palestine and al-Aqsa but instead have travelled across lands to fight a battle which involves killing Shias and destroying Syria on behalf of the West and Israel who want to not only overthrow Assad’s government but also the Axis of resistance Iran and Hezbollah?
A simple answer to this question lays with a mentality and a mind-set that has been created by funnelling millions of petro dollars into Wahabi/Salafi mosques and madrassas around the world by the Saudi regime which is linked closely to Israel and has Jewish roots according to Mohammad Sakher, who was put to death for writing a book called ‘Zionist rulers of Saudi Arabia’.
Most of the youth have been brought up and trained in Saudi funded Mosques and madrassas where a Wahabi form of Islam is taught. Abdul Wahab, whose uncle was incidentally an Iraqi Jew called Tjen Shulman, was used by the British to help propagate a new interpretation of Islam that would sanction murder under the guise of “Jihad.”
To this day Abdul Wahab's descendants are in charge of Islam’s dictates and fatwas, these dictates discourage jihad against Israel, but encourage jihad against Syria and Iran. Wahabism ferments Sunni Shia hatred, and has ensured that Israel can continue annihilating the Middle East while Muslims are caught up in sectarian warfare.
It is no coincidence that the ISIL want to establish a Caliphate across the Middle East, we can only assume this Caliphate will be Israel-friendly and under Israeli dictates and will finally achieve the Zionists’ dream of establishing greater Israel from the Euphrates to the Nile.
While Zionists have infiltrated every sphere of political life in the US controlling America’s policies domestic and foreign, Britain’s politicians aren’t far off as both 90% or Britain’s MPs are members of the Friends of Israel and as British Prime Minister Cameron proudly declared he is a Zionist.
In the same manner Saudi Arabia an ally of Israel has been allowed to infiltrate by using the ‘Trojan horse’ policy, ensuring that Britain’s main Muslim media outlets, Schools and mosques teach its distorted form of Islam which is Israel friendly and destructive towards Muslims.
As the Daily Mail report indicates if al-Mahijuroun is part of the ISIL recruitment drive and Choudhry is a known stooge used by the Security Services, then all are working for Israel and the Saudi agenda to destroy Syria.
The British government along with other western governments is all part of the advocates of a New World Order that is slowly being established through creating terror and fermenting fear, and in the process they have established police states and round-the-clock surveillance and have destroyed civil liberties for all.
The Home Secretary Teresa May has already heightened fears by stating that women are also running to join the terror group and that the ISIL ‘terrorists were hours away from London and intent on attacking us’, and as a result we need to revive the snoopers charter that gives security services more power to monitor the internet.
"Oh what a tangled web we weave when first we practice to deceive" states Sir Walter Scott but only in the present day case the tangled web that is being woven is Mossad’s motto "By way of deception, thou shalt do war."
The only saving grace that may have come out of the actions of the ISIL is that maybe they have unwittingly given a wake- up call to those Sunnis who came running to welcome the ISIL when it entered Iraq and to those who went to join it, when the ISIL brutally killed 12 Sunni clerics in Mosul who did not pledge allegiance to the group.
In the same way that many Sunni fighters realised after they had joined the Free Syrian Army but left to go back and support President Assad after seeing the brutalised killing spree the so called jihadist were inflicting on men, women and children.
They also went back after they saw how Hezbollah fighters had stepped in to save the Syrian people, Shia Sunni or Christian from being terrorised by the [so-called] FSA, the [so-called] al-Nusra Front and the ISIL.
The ISIL has openly exposed that they are working for the proponents of the New World Order led by Israel and the only way to overcome their subversive plots is for Shias and Sunnis to unite.
[Shabana Syed is a British Muslim journalist. She has been news editor for TV as well as Editor of many magazines. She mainly writes on issues concerning Muslims and current affairs. ]
According to the Washington Post the U.S. administration is discussing to increase the numbers of CIA trained mercenaries in Syria:
The Obama administration has been weighing plans to escalate the CIA’s role in arming and training fighters in Syria, a move aimed at accelerating covert U.S. support to moderate rebel factions while the Pentagon is preparing to establish its own training bases, U.S. officials said.
The administration knows very well that the legal ground it is standing on is very, very weak. The people it trains are criminals and do not observe basic laws of war or human rights. The administration's solution to breaking the law is trying to change it:
Breaking - and or changing - the laws of this country in order to achieve their objectives, is nothing new to this Administration.
And those objectives here have to do with wars creating private personal profit of the large corporations, coupled with the continuation of the hegemony of the US dollar.
We know that regime change in Syria, according to this Administration, is the prelude to regime change in Iran: but at what cost to our troops, militarily, monetarily, or morally?!?
From an historical standpoint, sending in "advisers" has never augured well for this country. So far, any training of rebels against Al-Assad's military has been an exercise in complete futility.
And because it is understood in military circles that one cannot win what is essentially a ground war from the air, when will we see the first US boots on the ground in Syria, if, in fact they are not already covertly there?!?
With this article stating "Around 2,000 Syrian fighters are slated to be given military training, which is set to begin at the end of December.", I would not be surprised to see US boots on the ground in Syria the very first part of next year, late winter, early spring.
BUT there is a teensy-weensy fly in the ointment here. As reported September 13th 2013 in examiner.com:
As noted on the official website of the University of Washington's Jackson School of International Studies (Jenkins, 17), the Russian Federation maintains mutual defense treaties with both Syria and Iran. Russia has stated on more than one occasion that “Iran is our close neighbor, just south of the Caucasus. Should anything happen to Iran, should Iran get drawn into any political or military hardships, this will be a direct threat to our national security.” An Attack On One Is An Attack On All... With the civil war ravaged Syrian nation bordering America's Turkish NATO partner to its south, if any of Assad's forces strike sovereign Turkish territory, the Ankara government could not only legitimately strike back, but every NATO member state would be treaty bound to militarily assist in any armed response. Subsequently, both the Russians and the Iranians would have no choice but to come to the defense of their mutual ally in Damascus.
So, any US military incursion into EITHER Syria or Iran will require Russia coming to either country's aid militarily.
And I have to wonder: is a full frontal US military attack against Syria their "back door" to a war against Russia?!?
And to our President, Congress, State Department and Pentagon: I would like to politely suggest that I am, surely, not the only American to have figured this out.
No righteous Muslim in his right mind would carry out such murder/beheadings against fellow Arabs/Muslims. All these Mercenary Killers are mind controlled zombies and I very much doubt that the poor Syrian soldiers would have stayed docile and still whilst being butchered in this horrific and unforgivable way. Wonder whether they have also been drugged up with Afghan Poppy production courtesy of the Jews who control Afghan Drug Trade which is booming like never before and protected by CIA/US soldiers on behalf of the Rothschild/Sassoon Cartel
These killers are not Muslims at all, they do not serve Allah nor His prophet in any way. They are Kaffirs receiving their so called ‘religious’ duties from Satanic men who have hijacked Islam in order to demonise it in the eyes of the world, and thereby hope to destroy it completely [as the Wahabis are already doing in Makkah/Medina, and the Jews destroying Islamic history, Culture not only in Palestine but in Iraq, Syria and Yemen. ISLAM remains the Biggest threat to World Jewish control and their Satanic/Pagan Talmudism whose ideologies are written by Rabbis, Not The Divine.
Talmudism’s Yahweh = Lucifer
IS Promotes Its Bloody Multinationality - Obama Says Assad Stays
By Moon Of Alabama
Video showed a row of 18 Islamic State fighters each beheading a captured Syrian officer or pilot.
ISIS allegedly makes over $1mn a day in black market oil sales. The group is now looking into minting its own currency, in gold, silver and copper. Each coin will reflect the metal's value on commodity market. The most expensive coins - Gold Dinars - will come in two denominations, one and five - with one Dinar to be worth about 160 dollars going by current gold prices. Lebanese oil expert Jihad Hakayem has more on how their economy got to this point.
Letters containing in-depth conclusions of a public inquiry into Britain’s 2003 Iraq War have been dispatched to the probe’s primary participants. Critics charge that the brutal eight-year war divided Britain and blackened Tony Blair’s legacy.
Under UK law, any individual that faces criticism in a public inquiry must be issued with an official letter warning them of allegations in its findings. They are subsequently then permitted to rebut and counter unsavory or unsatisfactory findings.
Egypt= Israeli Zionist occupied
Egypt deepened its involvement in the fight against Islamist militias that have taken over key parts of Libya, with officials saying Wednesday that Egyptian warplanes have bombed militia positions in the eastern city of Benghazi.
It's No Accident
Afghan Opium Production Hits All-Time High
By Mike Whitney
The proliferation of drugs helps to keep the "little people" in line so the adults can get on with the business of looting.
Lost Islamic History
It goes without saying that the first people to truly discover America were the ancestors of the Native Americans, who probably crossed into North America through Russia and Alaska about 12,000 years ago (recent Ice Age). Discussion of the “discovery” of the Americas by Europeans, Africans, or Asians is an insult to the history of its indigenous peoples.
America was inhabited long before Columbus by migrants from Asia, Ancient Europe (Vikings and traces of other Europeans), and Polynesia. Leif Erikson was a Norse explorer regarded as the first European to land in North America nearly 500 years before Christopher Columbus.
An Australian archeologist, Dr. Barry Fell, a marine biologist claimed to find extensive archeological evidence of a significant Muslim presence in the New World in his book, Saga America. Fell drew parallels between West African peoples and Native Americans in the southwest, including cultural and linguistic similarities, and the existence of Islamic petroglyphs in the southwestern region. In particular, Fell mentioned a carving that he believed was done centuries before Columbus that states in Arabic: Jesus son of Mary, a phrase commonly found in the Koran. Some researchers argue that Muslims came from Islamic Spain, particularly the port of Delba (Pelos) during the rule of Caliph Abdullah Ibn Mohammed (888-912). A book by a Muslim historian details the story of a Muslim navigator on a journey across the ocean to an unknown land, where they found much treasure. The historian, Abul-Hassan Al-Masudi, added a map of the world to his book, one that contained “a large area in the ocean of darkness and fog (the Atlantic Ocean) which he referred to as the unknown territory (the Americas).
Muslim explorers went with benign intentions. One of them was Chinese Admiral Zheng He who sailed to the Americas in 1405.
Columbus Was (Not) The First To Cross The Atlantic
The old poem that most American school children recognize begins “In 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue…” Indeed, in the year 1492, Christopher Columbus (whose real name in Italian was Cristoforo Colombo) sailed across the Atlantic in the name of the Spanish crown and landed in the Caribbean part of North America. For hundreds of years, it has simply been accepted that Columbus was the first explorer to valiantly sail across the sea and “discover” the Americas. However, this theory no longer stands up to modern scholarship.
It goes without saying that the first people to truly discover America were the ancestors of the Native Americans, who probably crossed into North America through Russia and Alaska about 12,000 years ago. Discussion of the “discovery” of the Americas by Europeans, Africans, or Asians is an insult to the history of its indigenous peoples. That said, the first daring souls to cross the Atlantic ocean by boat are important to know, and the theory of Columbus does no justice to their story.
While the common knowledge about Columbus is that he lived in a time where everyone assumed the world was flat, this is clearly not the case. Ancient Greek scholars such as Aristotle and Pythagoras suggested that the earth was in fact, round. It was during the Muslim Golden Ages (c. 750-1100s) that advanced scholarship into the shape and size of the earth began. Contrary to what most people may believe, in those years, it was common understanding that the earth was not flat. The debate, instead, was about exactly how large the earth was. In the early 800s, the Abbasid Caliph al-Ma’mun assembled the brightest minds of the day (including al-Khawarizmi) in Baghdad who calculated the earth’s circumference and were off by only 4% of it’s actual size.
Knowing that the earth was round, and knowing its size to a very good degree of accuracy (without the modern technology we have today), some intrepid Muslims must have attempted to go around the world, hundreds of years before Columbus. The proof of these voyages is in front of us, in black and white.
Al-Masudi’s world map of 956, showing the “unknown land” across the Atlantic across from Africa
The great Muslim historian and geographer, Abu al-Hasan al-Masudi wrote in 956 of a voyage in 889 from al-Andalus (Muslim Spain). The voyage sailed for months westward. They eventually found a large landmass across the ocean where they traded with the natives, and then returned to Europe. Al-Masudi records this land across the ocean in his famous map and refers to it as “the unknown land”.
Two more voyages from Muslim Spain to the Americas are recorded in history. One was in 999 and was led by Ibn Farrukh, from Granada. The other is recorded by the genius mind of the geographer al-Idrisi, who worked in the multi-cultural and religiously tolerant Sicily of King Roger II in the 1100s. He wrote of a group of Muslims who sailed west from Lisbon for 31 days and landed on an island in the Caribbean. They were taken prisoner by the Native Americans on that island for a few days. Eventually, they were freed when a translator who lived among the natives that spoke Arabic arranged for their release. They eventually sailed back to al-Andalus and told their tale. The important part of this account is the existence of an Arabic speaker among the natives, indicating that there must have been more unrecorded contact between the Arab world and the Americas.
There is another part of the Muslim world that had contact with the Americas before Columbus. In West Africa in the 1300s, a powerful and incredibly wealthy empire called Mali existed. The most famous leader of this empire was Mansa (king) Musa. The most memorable event of his reign was his epic hajj journey in 1324. The caravan of over 60,000 people made an impression everywhere they went, including Egypt, where Mansa Musa told the story of how he came to power. His brother, Abu Bakr was the Mansa before he was. During his reign, Abu Bakr sent a fleet of 400 ships to explore the Atlantic Ocean. Only 1 ship returned, but reported that they found a land across the ocean. Mansa Abu Bakr then outfitted a fleet of 2000 ships, which he sailed with personally, that sailed west into the ocean. They were never heard from again.
While there is no record in Mali of the result of that voyage, there is evidence of their arrival in the Americas. There are numerous archaeological sites in North and South America that attest to that Malian presence. Early Spanish explorers and pirates recorded abandoned cities in Brazil that had inscriptions identical to the language of the Mandinka (the people of Mali). More inscriptions in the Mandinka language were found in the United States as well. Near the Mississippi River, many inscriptions exist that recorded their exploration of the Americas. In Arizona, an inscription was found that reads “The elephants are sick and angry. At present there are many sick elephants”. This inscription also includes a rough sketch of an elephant. Elephants are not native to the Americas. They were brought by the Mandinka to the Americas, and the inscriptions are proof of Mansa Abu Bakr’s successful journey over 100 years before Columbus.
The Ottoman Empire
In 1929, an amazing discovery was made in Istanbul, Turkey. A map drawn in the year 1513 by the Ottoman cartographer, Piri Reis was found. Reis wrote that his map was based on earlier sources, including ancient Greek and Arabic maps, including maps by Christopher Columbus, who had sailed only 21 years earlier. What is remarkable about this map is the level of detail of the map, which forced historians to re-evaluate the Columbus theory of exploration.
The Piri Reis map of 1513
The map clearly shows the eastern coast of South America, which is in the correct position with regards to Africa. The coast of Brazil is shown in incredible detail, with many rivers accurately placed on the map. Although Reis used Columbus’s maps as a source, Columbus never went to South America, so Reis must have gotten that from earlier Muslim maps that he used as sources. Furthermore, Reis’s map includes the Andes Mountains, which were not even explored by Europeans until the 1520s, a full decade after the drawing of Reis’s map!
Piri Reis based his map on earlier sources, which clearly had a very good understanding of the Americas and had explored the area well before the first Europeans. The map is perhaps the strongest physical evidence of Muslim exploration of the Americas before Columbus
What Did Columbus Say?
With all of this evidence of Muslim exploration before Columbus’s voyage in 1492, is it possible that Columbus himself knew he was not the first? It’s more than likely to be the case. Columbus sailed from Spain in the same year the last Muslim dynasty of Iberia was destroyed in the Reconquista. Many of the people of Iberia were still Muslims, and carried with them the knowledge of the Muslim Golden Ages. Numerous people on Columbus’s voyage were Moriscos, Muslims who were forced to convert to Catholicism or die. Columbus could have heard from Spain’s Muslims of the New World and was thus inspired to go exploring.
Once he got to the Americas, Columbus records numerous examples of Muslims already present. He commented on the gold that the natives had, which was made the same way, in the same alloy, as the Muslims of West Africa did. Furthermore, Columbus records that the native word in that area for gold is guanin, which is very similar to the Mandinka word for gold, ghanin, which probably comes from the Arabic word for wealth, ghina’.
In 1498, Columbus recorded seeing a ship loaded with goods, heading towards America, filled with Africans who were probably on their way to trade with Native Americans. Columbus also records in his journal that Native Americans told him of black Africans who came regularly to trade with them.
Even Columbus knew that he was not the first to cross the Atlantic Ocean.
Clearly, the theory that Columbus discovered America is nothing but an old tale that has not stood the test of time. There is no doubt that the Columbian Era was a pivotal time in world history that changed the way of life in the Americas and Europe forever. However, he was not the first to make the crossing to the Americas. Evidence exists from the Arabs, West Africans, and Ottomans of Muslim voyages to the Americas well before Columbus and Christian Europe. For whatever reason, the textbooks continue to extoll the voyage of Columbus and the courage of his crew, the “first” to make it across the Atlantic. This idea clearly needs to be re-examined in light of evidence from earlier Muslim explorations, to bring their contributions to the general public.
Dirks , J. (2006). Muslims in American History . Beltsville, MD: Amana Publications.
Morgan, M. (2007). Lost History. Washington D.C. : National Geographic Society.
Quick, A. H. (2007). Deeper Roots. (3rd ed.). Cape Town: DPB Printers and Booksellers.
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National Geographic Covers 15th Century Muslim Chinese Admiral Zheng He's discovery of America in 1405
Get the whole story in the pages of National Geographic magazine. http://www7.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0507/feature2/